History

Old map of the British Empire, www.martinfrost.ws
Old map of the British Empire, www.martinfrost.ws


Timeline

**http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/interactive/timelines/british/index_embed.shtml**

Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Empire


PowerPoint




Videos













Australia
Flag og Australia, http://farm1.static.flickr.com/212/500923025_287e4f8717.jpg
Flag og Australia, http://farm1.static.flickr.com/212/500923025_287e4f8717.jpg



Timeline


http://www.pbs.org/wnet/australia/timeline.html


Wikipedia


History: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australia#History
Culture: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Australian_culture
Wildlife: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fauna_of_Australia


PowerPoint





Maps


World Map, http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:9SNvDjKeLpiHKM:http://www.freeworldmaps.
World Map, http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:9SNvDjKeLpiHKM:http://www.freeworldmaps.




Google Map:







































Images



Sydney Opera House, http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:1kjoCjNh7dPh8M:http://farm3.static.flickr.com/
Sydney Opera House, http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:1kjoCjNh7dPh8M:http://farm3.static.flickr.com/



Ayer's Rock, http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3154/2366002707_330ac00f10.jpg
Ayer's Rock, http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3154/2366002707_330ac00f10.jpg



Great Barrier Reef, http://farm1.static.flickr.com/131/340763653_acd24c2058.jpg
Great Barrier Reef, http://farm1.static.flickr.com/131/340763653_acd24c2058.jpg



Videos






























































Australian Themes from Gerard Mack on Vimeo.














Film

Australia


http://www.fionalake.com.au/other-info/other-references/music-films-books/australia-film

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australia_(2008_film)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australia_(2008_film)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australia_(2008_film)

Contents

[hide]

Australia is a 2008 epic historical romance film directed by Baz Luhrmann and starring Nicole Kidman and Hugh Jackman. It is the second-highest grossing Australian film of all time, behind Crocodile Dundee. The screenplay was written by Luhrmann and screenwriter Stuart Beattie, with Ronald Harwood. The film is a character story, set between 1939 and 1942 against a dramatised backdrop of events across northern Australia at the time, such as the bombing of Darwin during World War II. Production took place in Sydney, Darwin, Kununurra, and Bowen. The movie was released in both Australia and the United States on 26 November 2008,[5] with subsequent worldwide release dates throughout late December 2008 and January and February 2009.


Cast
  • Nicole Kidman as Lady Sarah Ashley, an English aristocrat who inherits the cattle station Faraway Downs in Australia.
  • Hugh Jackman as Drover, a drover who helps Lady Sarah Ashley move the cattle across the property.
  • David Wenham as Neil Fletcher, a station manager who plans to take Faraway Downs from Lady Sarah Ashley.
  • Bryan Brown as Lesley 'King' Carney, a cattle baron who owns much of the land in northern Australia.
  • Jack Thompson as Kipling Flynn, an alcoholic accountant who enjoys a luxurious lifestyle.
  • David Gulpilil as King George, a magic tribal elder, grandfather of Nullah.
  • Brandon Walters as Nullah, a young Aboriginal boy whom Lady Sarah Ashley finds at Faraway Downs.
  • Ray Barrett as Ramsden, an old friendly fellow.
  • David Ngoombujarra as Magarri, the Drover's colleague and friend.
  • Ben Mendelsohn as Captain Emmett Dutton, a Darwin-based Australian Army officer in charge of beef supply.
  • Sandy Gore as Gloria Carney, King Carney's wife, and Catherine's mother.
  • Essie Davis as Catherine 'Cath' Carney Fletcher, wife of Neil Fletcher and daughter of King Carney.
  • Barry Otto as Administrator Allsop, the King's representative in the Northern Territory.
  • Ursula Yovich as Daisy, the mother of Nullah.
  • Yuen Wah as Sing Song, a Cantonese chef at Faraway Downs.
  • Jacek Koman as Ivan, the saloonkeeper and innkeeper in Darwin.
  • Tony Barry as Sergeant Callahan, the head of the Northern Territory police.

Plot
In 1939, Lady Sarah Ashley (Nicole Kidman) travels from England to northern Australia to force her philandering husband to sell his faltering cattle station, Faraway Downs. Her husband sends an independent cattle drover (Hugh Jackman), called "Drover", to transport her to Faraway Downs.
Lady Sarah's husband is murdered shortly before she arrives, and the authorities tell her that the killer is an Aboriginal elder, "King George" (David Gulpilil). Meanwhile, cattle station manager Neil Fletcher (David Wenham) is trying to gain control of Faraway Downs, so that Lesley 'King' Carney (Bryan Brown) will have a complete cattle monopoly, giving him negotiating leverage with an Australian army officer, Captain Dutton (Ben Mendelsohn).
The childless Lady Sarah is captivated by the boy Nullah (Brandon Walters), who has an Aboriginal mother and a white father. Nullah tells her that he has seen her cattle being driven onto Carney's land — in other words, stolen from her. Because of this Fletcher mistreats Nullah and threatens him and his mother, so Lady Sarah fires Fletcher and decides to try and run the cattle station herself. When Nullah and his mother hide from the authorities in a water tower, his mother drowns. Lady Sarah comforts Nullah by singing the song "Over the Rainbow" from the film The Wizard of Oz. Nullah tells her that "King George" is his grandfather, and that like the Wizard, he too is a "magic man".
Lady Sarah persuades Drover to take the cattle to Darwin for sale. Drover is friendly with the Aborigines, and therefore shunned by many of the other whites in the territory. It is revealed that he was married to an Aboriginal woman, who died after being refused medical treatment in a hospital because of her race. Lady Sarah also reveals she is barren.
Drover leads a team of six other riders, including Lady Sarah, Drover's Aboriginal brother-in-law Magarri (David Ngoombujarra), Nullah, and the station's accountant Kipling Flynn (Jack Thompson), to drive the 1,500 cattle to Darwin. They encounter various obstacles along the way, including a fire set by Carney's men that scares the cattle, resulting in the death of Flynn when the group tries to stop the cattle from stampeding over a cliff. Lady Sarah and Drover fall in love, and she gains a new appreciation for the Australian territory. The team drive the cattle through the dangerous Never Never desert. Then, when at last delivering the cattle in Darwin, the group has to race them onto the ship before Carney's cattle are loaded.
Afterwards, Lady Sarah, Nullah, and Drover live together happily at Faraway Downs for two years. Meanwhile, Fletcher kills Carney, marries his daughter Cath Carney, takes over Carney's cattle empire, and continues to menace Lady Sarah. It is established that Fletcher was the actual murderer of Lady Sarah's husband, and is also Nullah's father.
Nullah is drawn to perform a walkabout with his grandfather "King George", but is instead taken by the authorities and sent to live on Mission Island with the other half-Aboriginal children (dubbed the "Stolen Generations"). Lady Sarah, who has come to regard Nullah as her adopted son, vows to rescue him. Meanwhile, she works as a radio operator in Darwin during the escalation of World War II. When the Japanese attack the island and Darwin in 1942, Lady Sarah fears that Nullah has been killed.
Drover, who had quarrelled with Lady Sarah and left, returns to Darwin and hears (mistakenly) that she has been killed in the bombing. Drover learns of Nullah's abduction to Mission Island, and goes with Magarri and a young priest to rescue him and the other children. Meanwhile, Lady Sarah is about to evacuate, but when Drover and the children sail back into port at Darwin, and Nullah plays "Over the Rainbow" on his harmonica, Lady Sarah hears the music and the three are reunited.
Fletcher, distraught at the ruination of his plans, attempts to shoot Nullah, but is speared by King George and falls dead. Lady Sarah, Drover, and Nullah return to the safety of remote Faraway Downs. There, King George calls for Nullah, who returns to the Outback with his grandfather.






















Rabbit Proof Fence

Plot Summary

rabbit-proof-fence-by-doris-pilking.jpgWestern Australia, 1931. Government policy includes taking half-caste children from their Aboriginal mothers and sending
them a thousand miles away to what amounts to indentured servitude, "to save them from themselves."




Molly, Daisy, and Grace (two sisters and a cousin who are 14, 10, and 8) arrive at their Gulag and promptly escape, under Molly's lead. For days they walk north, following a fence that keeps rabbits from settlements, eluding a native tracker and the regional constabulary. Their pursuers take orders from the government's "chief protector of Aborigines," A.O. Neville, blinded by Anglo-Christian certainty, evolutionary world view and conventional wisdom. Can the girls survive?


It's 1931 in Western Australia. A.O. Neville is the government's official in dealing with aborigine issues. Under the law, he has the right to seize "half-caste" children - those with both aborigine and white parentage - to be housed on native settlements, where they are to be "re-educated" to western ways eventually to become servants for whites. The assertion is that this measure will protect the aborigine population, as if they are left to intermingle within aborigine communities, half-castes will turn the community white as the weaker aborigine gene will be bred out within a few generations. It is under this law that Neville seizes, among others, sisters, fourteen year old Molly Craig and eight year old Daisy Craig Kadibill, and their ten year old cousin Gracie Fields. Ever since arriving at the Moore River Native Settlement camp, Molly plans to escape with her sister and cousin, and walk all the way back to Jigalong to their real home, real family and their traditional way of life. Molly uses the 3,000 kilometer long rabbit-proof fence which runs adjacent to Jigalong to navigate her way home. But Neville and his trackers will not let a bunch of half-caste girls circumvent the law and its associated grand plan.




In 1931, with the Aborigine Act in Australia, the Chief Protector of Aborigines in the State of Western Australia A.O. Neville had the power to relocate half-caste children from their families to educational centers to give the culture of the white man. When the fourteen year-old aboriginal girl Molly Craig is taken from her mother in Jigalong with her eight year-old sister Daisy Kadibill and their ten year-old cousin Gracie Fields to the distant Moore River Native Center, they run away trying to return to the tribe in the desert. They are chased by the skilled tracker Moodoo and the police under the command of Neville, and have to survive to their long journey back home.


Three little girls. Snatched from their mothers' arms. Spirited 1,500 miles away. Denied their very identity. Forced to adapt to a strange new world. They will attempt the impossible. A daring escape. A run from the authorities. An epic journey across an unforgiving landscape that will test their very will to survive. Their only resources, tenacity, determination, ingenuity and each other. Their one hope, find the rabbit-proof fence that might just guide them home. A true story.




This is the true story of Molly Craig, a young black Australian girl who leads her younger sister and cousin in an escape from an official government camp, set up as part of an official government policy to train them as domestic workers and integrate them into white society. With grit and determination Molly guides the girls on an epic journey, one step ahead of the authorities, over 1,500 miles of Australia's outback in search of the rabbit-proof fence that bisects the continent and will lead them home. These three girls are part of what is referred to today as the 'Stolen Generations.'


Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabbit-Proof_Fence_(film)#Plot





















India



Map of India, escape.no
Map of India, escape.no

Flag of India, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/60/Flag_of_India_(WFB_2004).gif
Flag of India, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/60/Flag_of_India_(WFB_2004).gif







PowerPoint







Googlemap
























Mahatma Gandhi

Facts
fotopedia.com
fotopedia.com


Here is a brief summary of some of the major facts associated with Mahatma Gandhi. These facts highlight some of the major achievements of Mohandas Gandhi and provide valuable information on Mahatama Gandhi.

Birth: October 2, 1869
Death: January 30, 1948
Place of Birth: Porbandar, Gujarat
Father: Karamchand Gandhi
Mother: Putlibai
Wife: Kasturbai

1888-1891: Studied law in London

1893: Sailed for South Africa

1906: Began Satyagraha campaign in South Africa to protest the requirement that Indians be fingerprinted and carry identification cards

1915: Returned to India from South Africa

1917: Initiated Champaran Satyagraha to alleviate the condition of indigo planters

1919: Instituted Satyagraha campaign in India to protest the Rowlatt Acts, which deprived all Indians of important civil liberties.

1922: Ended Non-Cooperation movement against British Raj after his followers were involved in a series of riots and disturbances that violated his policy of nonviolence

1930: Led Dandi March to collect salt in protest of the British salt tax.

1931: Signed a pact with Lord Irwin to suspend the Civil Disobedience Movement and went to London to attend Round Table Conference.

1932: Fasted to protest the treatment of people who belonged to no Hindu caste, the Harijans or Untouchables

1942: Launched Quit India Movement against British Raj.

January 30, 1948: Assassinated by Nathuram Godse, a Hindu extremist.

http://www.iloveindia.com/indian-heroes/mahatma-gandhi/facts.html

Quotations

http://www.quotationspage.com/quotes/Mahatma_Gandhi/

Film

Slumdog Millionær


Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slumdog_Millionaire

Review

Review Of Slum Dog Millionaire

Themes


What are the central themes of Slumdog Millionaire?















































Reggae Island












http://slafrica.files.wordpress.com/2008/07/mandela_last.jpg
http://slafrica.files.wordpress.com/2008/07/mandela_last.jpg



South Africa


Fast facts:
http://www.southafrica.info/about/facts.htm




Flag of South Africa, http://farm1.static.flickr.com/1/597791_28fce5bc4f_o.jpg
Flag of South Africa, http://farm1.static.flickr.com/1/597791_28fce5bc4f_o.jpg




http://pzacad.pitzer.edu/~djohnson/
http://pzacad.pitzer.edu/~djohnson/

South Africa

is located at the southern tip of Africa. It is bordered by Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Swaziland and Lesotho (which is completely surrounded by South Africa). It is a vast country with widely varying landscapes and has 11 official languages, as well as an equally diverse population. South Africa is renowned for its wines and is the world's largest producer of gold. South Africa has a strong economy and is an influential player in African politics. In 2010, South Africa will host the first World Cup 2010|Football World Cup to be held on the African continent.

Source:
http://wikitravel.org/en/South_Africa





hotbrandsinternational.com
hotbrandsinternational.com



































































Sierra Leone



Flag of Sierra Leone, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/15/Sierra_leone_flag_300.png
Flag of Sierra Leone, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/15/Sierra_leone_flag_300.png

File:LocationSierraLeone.svg
File:LocationSierraLeone.svg



















West Africa
West Africa

Sierra Leone ([sieɪrə liˈoːn]), officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Guinea in the north, Liberia in the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean in the southwest. Sierra Leone covers a total area of 71,740 km2 (27,699 sq mi) [4] and has a population estimated at 6.4 million. The country is a constitutional republic comprising three provinces and the Western Area, which are further divided into fourteen districts.The country has a tropical climate, with a diverse environment ranging from savannah to rainforests.[5] Freetown is the capital, largest city and economic center.[4] English is the official language,[6] spoken at schools, government administration and by the media. However, the Krio language (a language derived from English and several African languages and native to the Sierra Leone Krio people) is the most widely spoken language in virtually all parts of the country. The Krio language is spoken by 97% of the country's population[2] and unites all the different ethnic groups, especially in their trade and interaction with each other.[1] Despite its common use throughout the country, the Krio language has no official status. In December 2002, Sierra Leone’s President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah named Bengali as an "official language" in recognition of the work of 5,300 troops from Bangladesh in the peace-keeping force.





















































































Ishmael Beah
external image 200px-A_Long_Way_Gone.jpg
Ishmael Beah
Ishmael Beah

Ishmael Beah is born on November 23rd 1980, in Mattru Jong Bonthe District, Sierra Leone. Ishmeal is a former Sierra Leone child soldier.
A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier is a book written by Ishmael Beah in 2007 about his experiences as a boy soldier.









Plot Summary

The book starts in January 1993, Sierra Leone, when a twelve-year old Ishmael Beah, his older brother and some friends leave their native village of Mattru Jong in the Moyamba District to attend a talent show in a neighboring village a few days away. While there, however, the group learns that their home has been attacked by the Revolutionary United Front (RUF). It is from here that the young boys become entangled in a long process of fleeing war violence; being captured by rebel forces and wary villagers alike; as well as trying to find and be reunited with their families. Eventually, Beah becomes separated from the group during an RUF attack and he wanders by himself for a while, spending a few weeks hiding in a jungle before encountering another young group of boys whom he recognizes as being friends from Mogbwemo. He joins this group and they go about much as before, continually wandering and surviving until they reach the town of Yele in the Bonthe District, which has been converted to use as a military base by the Sierra Leonean government army. It is here with the town being surrounded by RUF fighters that Beah, his friends and many other refugees are forcibly conscripted by the army to fight. With the help of drugs, war movies, fellow soldiers and combat violence, Beah becomes a mindless killer before being released from the army to UNICEF a few years later in January 1996 at the age of fifteen. Beah is taken to a shelter in the capital of Sierra Leone, Freetown, where he and several other child soldiers are to be rehabilitated. However, the children cause much trouble for the volunteer staffers at the facility, with Beah experiencing symptoms of drug withdrawal as well as troubling memories of his time as a child soldier. Despite the violence caused by the children, one of the staffers, Nurse Esther, becomes interested in Beah, learning about his childhood love of rap music and purchasing him a rap cassette and Walkman when she takes Beah and his friend Alhaji to the city. It is through this connection and his numerous counseling experiences with Esther that Beah eventually turns away from his violent self and starts to heal from his mental wounds. Eventually, Beah becomes adopted by one of his uncles in the city and settles down with him and his family on the outskirts of Freetown. It is during this time that Beah is chosen to speak to the UN in New York about his experiences as a child soldier and the other problems plaguing his country.While at the UN meeting in New York Beah met several other children who were also experiencing problems in their countries. There were 57 children present at the meeting and each of them told their story to the UN. He also meets Laura Simms, a storyteller chaperone to Beah and his future foster mother.However in 1998 when Beah returns to Sierra Leone, Freetown is invaded by a combination of the RUF and the Sierra Leonean government army, causing many civilian deaths including the passing away of his uncle. Alone, Beah decides to get in contact with Laura, then he escapes Sierra Leone and crosses the border into Guinea, where he eventually makes his way to the United States and his new life abroad.[1]


Awards and Recognition

"A Long Way Gone" was nominated for a Quill Award in the Best Debut Author category for 2006.

Credibility dispute
In 2008, The Australian reported that aspects of Beah's account of his life story did not match other evidence. The report claimed that Beah's village was destroyed in 1995 rather than 1993, and that given the more compressed time frame, he could not have been a soldier for more than a couple of months, rather than the years that he describes in his book.[2] He would also have been aged 15 when he became a soldier, rather than 13. Questions were also raised about Beah's description of a battle between child soldiers at a UNICEF camp, in which 6 people were said to have been killed. Witnesses interviewed by The Australian said that such an event in a UNICEF camp would have drawn significant attention in Sierre Leone, but no independent verification of such a battle could be obtained. Investigations by other publications also failed to discover other evidence of such a battle, and UNICEF, while supportive of Beah in general, also said that it had not been able to verify this aspect of his story.[3] The Australian's claims were subsequently denied in a statement issued by Beah, in which he called into question the reliability of the sources quoted. The statement also cited the fact that during the early stages of its research, the newspaper had investigated the possibility that Beah's father was still alive, a possibility that was based on mistaken identity by an Australian mining engineer. The Australian's published articles stated that they had established that the man in question was not Beah's father.
Beah's adoptive mother also reaffirmed her belief in the validity of the dates, quoting two Sierra Leonean sources who corroborated the chronology of events given in his book.[4] However, the publisher amended this statement after The Australian objected that it seriously misrepresented the newspaper's report. The source cited by the publisher, Mr. Leslie Mboka, National Chairman of the Campaign for Just Mining, was in fact quoted by The Australian. The newspaper quoted him as saying that Beah "was a young child who had been through terrible things so he could easily have got things mixed up." Mr. Mboka, when subsequently contacted by the publisher, reported to them that he had vigorously supported Beah's chronology when interviewed by The Australian, and had challenged the paper for bias. However, Mr. Mboka had not met Beah until after the disputed events had taken place, and so was unable to provide firsthand verification of his account.[5] The other correction involved the newspaper's publication, not of Beah's foster-mother's address but of her publicly listed website address; hate mail had indeed been received, but via the Internet. While the publisher made note of these, it stood by the accuracy of the book.[6]
The dispute over Beah's credibility arose at a time when the exposure of some "fictional" memoirs, such as Margaret Selzer's account of growing up in a Los Angeles crime gang[7] and James Frey's account of drug addiction had led to debate over the nature of the genre. The controversy was followed up in international publications including the British Sunday Times,[8] Slate,[9] and the Village Voice.[10] Beah had claimed to have a "photographic memory" which enabled him to have perfect recall of the events he described, leaving him "less room to maneuver" than if he allowed room for human error.[11] However, some of his defenders as well as his critics allowed for the possibility that his account was not entirely accurate, stating that the main point was that he had drawn attention to an issue that was of vital importance. Possible explanations for any inaccuracies include the trauma of war as experienced by a young child, the drug use described in his account, and the possibility that Beah was tacitly encouraged by outsiders to compile stories from multiple sources into a singular autobiographical account.
Neil Boothby, an academic who has undertaken extensive research into children and war, said that while all of the atrocities described by Beah have occurred at various points, it would be highly unusual for one child to have experienced them all. Boothby criticised the mentality that provided attention only to those with the most horrific stories to tell, thus encouraging exaggeration. "I've seen it over and over. Whether by psychologists or journalists, they are encouraged to tell the sensational stories...The system is set up to reward sensational stories. We all need to look at why does something have to be so horrific before we open our eyes and ears and hearts?"[12]
Mr Beah has made a vigorous response to the charges leveled against him in The Australian. His comments and self defence can be found at:
http://www.publishersweekly.com/article/CA6524214.html

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Audio recordings of children from Sierra Leone and Burma talking about their experiences.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/people/features/childrensrights/childrenofconflict/soldier.shtml

The Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary General for Children and Armed Conflict
http://www.un.org/children/conflict/



Other countries